Studies

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ASAM Public Policy Statement on Marijuana, Cannabinoids and Legalization Pregnancy, addiction, cigarettes, edibles, Research, Studies
  • Prenatal exposure to marijuana has been shown to be predictive of psychotic symptoms in young adulthood.
  • Monitoring the Future survey reported a five-year decline in the perceived harm of regularly smoking marijuana, from 52.4% of high school seniors to 36.1%
  • Marijuana is the most widely used illegal drug in the United States and it is estimated that it is used by 61% of all persons suffering from a substance use disorder related to drugs other than alcohol.
  • The risk of developing addiction associated with cannabis use has been reported to increase to about 17% among those who start using marijuana in adolescence, and to 25-50% among those who smoke marijuana daily.
  • Smoke from marijuana combustion has been shown to contain a number of carcinogens and cocarcinogens, as well as many of the toxins, irritants, and carcinogens as tobacco smoke. 
  • Marijuana-infused edibles account for 45% of the legal marijuana marketplace.
  • AMA Marijuana has a high potential for abuse. It has no scientifically proven, currently accepted medical use for preventing or treating any disease process in the United States.

 

Number Using Opioids and Marijuana on the Rise

Chart: Colorado among states with growing heroin, prescription drug abuse problem 

Consistent with the past, in 2014 still only 47 percent of operators involved in traffic deaths were tested for drug impairment.

 

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Medicinal and Recreational Marijuana: What are the Risks? Teens, Research, Studies, Brain, addiction, anxiety, depression, Resource Paper

Brain abnormalities and memory problems were observed in these individuals in their early twenties, two years after they had stopped using marijuana. The cannabis users were noted to have striatal, globus pallidus, and thalamus changes showing these brain regions appearing to shrink and collapse inward. These individuals also had poorer working memory. The earlier the age of cannabis use, the more dramatic the brain changes and memory deficits were noted to be.
Not only does it appear that cannabis use itself is a potential precursor to future drug use, but the age of first use of cannabis and the frequency of cannabis use seem to also be predictors of future substance abuse issues. Studies have shown that over two-thirds of those under the age of 18 who have been admitted to a drug treatment program identify cannabis as their substance of choice.
” One important characteristic that defines a substance use disorder is “an underlying change in brain circuits that may persist beyond detoxification, particularly in individuals with severe disorder"

2
Marijuana Use and PTSD among Veterans Veterans, PTSD, mental health, Studies, Research

Marijuana use for medical conditions is an issue of growing concern. Some Veterans use marijuana to relieve symptoms of PTSD and several states specifically approve the use of medical marijuana for PTSD. However, controlled studies have not been conducted to evaluate the safety or effectiveness of medical marijuana for PTSD. Thus, there is no evidence at this time that marijuana is an effective treatment for PTSD. In fact, research suggests that marijuana can be harmful to individuals with PTSD.

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Letter from American Epilpsey Society Charlotte's Web, epilepsy, Legislation, Colorado, Studies, Research

A study by a team from Children's Hospital Colorado that was presented during the AES Annual Meeting in December 2014 and has recently been accepted for publication in the journal Epilepsy & Behavior, found that artisanal "high CBD" oils resulted in no significant reduction in seizures in the majority of patients and in those for whom the parents reported improvements, these improvements were not associated with improvement in electroencephalograms (EEGs), the gold standard monitoring test for people with epilepsy.

 

Additionally, in 20% of cases reviewed seizures worsened with use of cannabis and in some patients there were significant adverse events. These are not the stories that you have likely 

heard in your public hearings, but they are the reality of practitioners at Children's Hospital Colorado who have cared for the largest number of cases of children with epilepsy treated with cannabis in the U.S.

4
The Impact of Marijuana Policies on Youth: Clinical, Research, and Legal Update youth, American Academy of Pediatrics, AAP, Studies, Research

·        These consequences include impaired short-term memory and decreased concentration, attention span, and problem solving, which clearly interfere with learning. Alterations in motor control, coordination, judgment, reaction time, and tracking ability have also been documented; these may contribute to unintentional deaths and injuries among adolescents (especially those associated with motor vehicles if adolescents drive while intoxicated by marijuana).
·        Negative health effects on lung function associated with smoking marijuana have also been documented, and studies linking marijuana use with higher rates of psychosis in patients with a predisposition to schizophrenia have recently been published, raising concerns about longer-term psychiatric effects. New research has also demonstrated that the adolescent brain, particularly the prefrontal cortex areas controlling judgment and decision-making, is not fully developed until the mid-20s, raising questions about how any substance use may affect the developing brain. Research has shown that the younger an adolescent begins using drugs, including marijuana, the more likely it is that drug dependence or addiction will develop in adulthood.
·         A recent analysis of 4 large epidemiologic trials found that marijuana use during adolescence is associated with reductions in the odds of high school completion and degree attainment and increases in the use of other illicit drugs and suicide attempts in a dose-dependent fashion that suggests that marijuana use is causative.

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Medical Marijuana: The State of the Science Studies, Research, medscape, mental health, Side-Effects, heart, lungs, body, Brain, youth, cannabis, Resource Paper

Medical cannabinoids are here to stay, but intellectual honesty is imperative if we are moving toward exploiting their potential benefits. Owing to rising THC concentrations of products, "medical" marijuana is rarely good medicine. This review has identified the dangers associated with whole­plant marijuana, whether used for recreational or for supposedly medical purposes.

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Legalization, Decriminalization & Medicinal Use of Cannabis:A Scientific and Public Health Perspective Research, Studies, Psychosis, Glaucoma, mental health, organs, risks 7
Marijuana use and physical dating violence among adolescents and emerging adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. meta-analysis, PDV, adolescent, Studies, Research, ncbi

Findings suggest that marijuana use is associated with a 54% increase in the odds PDV (physical dating violence) victimization, and a 45% increase in the odds of perpetration. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that dating violence is a correlate of marijuana use, and that association is strongest among adolescents (vs. emerging adults) and girls (vs. boys).

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Long lasting effects of chronic heavy cannabis abuse. ncbi, chronic, impaired, delusions, Long-term, Studies, Research

The existence of hallucinations, delusions, and organic brain dysfunction in heavy cannabis users seems to be associated with cannabinoid levels in hair. The continuation of persistent symptoms 3 months after the discontinuation of cannabis abuse, was a remarkable finding. SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: We provide evidence that chronic and heavy cannabis abuse results in long-lasting brain dysfunction in all users and in long-lasting schizophrenia-like psychotic symptoms in more than half of all users. These findings suggest a reevaluation of the current classification of cannabis as a "soft narcotic" which erroneously, therefore, is typically considered harmless. (Am J Addict 2017;XX:1-8).

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Is the Hype of Medical Marijuana All Smoke and Mirrors? MM Regulations, Studies

Short-term side effects include impaired short-term memory, impaired motor function, altered judgment, and, in high doses, paranoia and psychosis. Not to mention that drivers who have recently smoked marijuana are twice as likely to get into a car accident than their sober counterparts.Approximately 9% of people who experiment with marijuana will become addicted.
If marijuana can meet all of the FDA requirements, including efficacy data, evidence of safety, and a meticulous quality control program, then the medicinal use of marijuana could be supported. Until then, we will need smoke and mirrors to make it appear that this drug not only makes people feel good, but is indeed good for you.

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GW Pharma Reports Success with THC and CBD Combo in Brain Cancer Phase 2 Clinical Trial gw pharm, Studies, cancer 11
Heavy Marijuana Use May Alter Dopamine System Much Like Heroin and Cocaine Studies, dopamine, Skywood

“But the bottom line is that long-term, heavy cannabis use may impair the dopaminergic system, which could have a variety of negative effects on learning and behavior,” said Dr. Anissa Abi-Dargham, professor of psychiatry and a lead author of the paper.
 
“I used to be able to read a book and even after a couple years I would still know most of the book,” she said. “Now I have to read something four or five times to remember.”

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The Clinical Conundrum of Medical Marijuana Potency, Studies, driving, Finn, MD, 2017 Legislation

Detailed Information
. Patients freely share their “medicine” with family and friends, and parents are self-diagnosing, and subsequently dosing their children with high-concentration marijuana products for conditions that may simply not exist (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, etc.); or allow their medical cards to expire and continue to grow their own.
The use of marijuana for medical conditions, including pain, needs robust studies, and subsequent products need more regulation and consistency for public consumption. Colorado is an example of the societal effect across a wide spectrum of arenas that comes with rampant cannabis use, particularly in youth use and impaired driving fatalities. The problems Colorado is seeing completely transcend “responsible use” or “marijuana as medicine.” 

 

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Marijuana use may be linked to temporarily weakened heart muscle heart, Studies, Research, American Heart Association

"This development of stress cardiomyopathy in younger patients who used marijuana suggests a possible link that needs to be further investigated," said Sahil Agrawal, M.D., co-author of the paper and also a chief cardiology fellow at St. Luke's.

Marijuana users were more likely than non-users to have a history of depression (32.9 percent vs. 14.5 percent), psychosis (11.9 percent vs. 3.8 percent), anxiety disorder (28.4 percent vs. 16.2 percent), alcoholism (13.3 percent vs. 2.8 percent), tobacco use (73.3 percent vs. 28.6 percent) and multiple substance abuse (11.4 percent vs. 0.3 percent). Because some of these can increase the risk of stress cardiomyopathy, the researchers adjusted for known risk factors to investigate the association between marijuana use and stress cardiomyopathy.

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Educational Outcomes education, PubMed, Studies

CONCLUSIONS:
Medical marijuana law exposure between age 14 to 18 likely has a delayed effect on use and education that persists over time.

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Truth about Charlotte's Web Charlotte's Web, Studies, CBD

The children presented typical signs of intoxication by Δ9-THC (inappropriate laughter, ataxia, reduced attention, and eye redness) after using a CBD-enriched extract. The extract was replaced by the same dose of purified CBD with no Δ9-THC in both cases, which led to improvement in intoxication signs and seizure remission. 

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Complexities in understanding and addressing the serious public health issues related to the nonmedical use of prescription drugs Studies, Research, Prescription, epidemic, 2017 Legislation

A common theme among every article in this issue is the overlap be- tween NMUPD, excessive drinking, and marijuana and other forms of substance use. In every investigation, nonmedical users were observed to have a history of using alcohol, marijuana, tobacco, and other psycho- active substances. Kalyanam, Katsuki, Lanckriet, and Mackey (2017)
Kalyanam, J., Katsuki, T., Lanckriet, G., & Mackey, T. K. (2017). Exploring trends of non- medical use of prescription drugs and polydrug abuse in the Twittersphere using un- supervised machine learning. Addictive Behaviors, 65, 289–295. http://dx.doi.org/10. 1016/j.addbeh.2016.08.019.

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PubMed PubMed, Studies

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=marijuana

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Yale Study Shows Danger of Marijuana Veterans, PTSD, Studies

“In this observational study,” it found that “initiating marijuana use after treatment was associated with worse PTSD symptoms, more violent behavior, and alcohol use. Marijuana may actually worsen PTSD symptoms or nullify the benefits of specialized, intensive treatment. Cessation or prevention of use may be an important goal of treatment.”

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Study shows marijuana users twice as likely to give birth prematurely Pregnancy, Studies

For the researchers of the study, the results present a “a major public health concern” as a number of pregnant women would report taking marijuana to alleviate morning sickness or nausea – without knowing of the adverse side-effects.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0890623816300715#    

Highlights

Marijuana increases the risk of spontaneous preterm birth independent of cigarette smoking status and socio-economic status.

Women who continue to use marijuana at 20 weeks’ gestation are five times more likely to deliver preterm than those who do not.

The rate of early SPTB is higher amongst women who continue to use marijuana at 20 weeks’ gestation.

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Marijuana Use Increases Violent Behavior violence, Studies, crime

What makes this new study more compelling than previous studies is that the researchers followed the same individuals for over 50 years from a young age to adulthood.  This is precisely what one needs to solve the chicken or egg riddle with respect to cannabis and violence:  just look and see which one happens first.
One fifth of those who were pot smokers (22%) reported violent behavior that began after beginning to use cannabis, whereas only 0.3% reported violence before using weed.  Continued use of cannabis over the life-time of the study was the strongest predictor of violent convictions, even when the other factors that contribute to violent behavior were considered in the statistical analysis.
 In conclusion, the results show that continued cannabis use is associated with a 7-fold greater odds for subsequent commission of violent crimes.  This level of risk is similar to the increased risk of lung cancer from smoking cigarettes over a similar duration (40 years).  The authors suggest that impairments in neurological circuits controlling behavior may underlie impulsive, violent behavior, as a result of cannabis altering the normal neural functioning in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. 

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Substance Abuse and Mental Illness: Effects of Marijuana and Other Drugs on Developing Psychosis Psychosis, Studies

• Rates of cannabis use are approximately 2 times greater in persons with psychosis
• Cannabis has negative effects on cognition that are qualitatively similar in the general population, in people with psychotic disorders and in people at risk for psychotic disorders
• Adolescence is an important but vulnerable period of development for both the general population and especially for individuals at high risk for psychotic disorders

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Study Links Marijuana Use to Greater Risk for Developing Addiction to Other Drugs addiction, youth, Studies

A new study suggests marijuana smokers may be significantly more likely to develop an addiction to other drugs and alcohol than people who don’t use marijuana.
The study, published in JAMA Psychiatry, included almost 35,000 adults who were interviewed three years apart. At the time of the first interview, almost 1,300 used marijuana. After three years, two-thirds of people who used marijuana had some form of substance use disorder, compared with less than 20 percent of people who did not use marijuana in the previous year.

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Persistent Cannabis Dependence and Alcohol Dependence Represent Risks for Midlife Economic and Social Problems: A Longitudinal Cohort Study alcohol, addiction, Studies

Our data indicate that persistent cannabis users constitute a burden on families, communities, and national social-welfare systems. Moreover, heavy cannabis use and dependence was not associated with fewer harmful economic and social problems than was alcohol dependence. Our study underscores the need for prevention and early treatment of individuals dependent on cannabis. 

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EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF EPIDIOLEX (CANNABIDIOL) IN CHILDREN AND YOUNG ADULTS WITH TREATMENT-RESISTANT EPILEPSY: UPDATE FROM THE EXPANDED ACCESS PROGRAM Charlotte's Web, american epiliepsy society, AES, Studies

These results from an uncontrolled study support the animal studies and prior reports showing that CBD may be a promising treatment for TRE and it is generally well-tolerated in doses up to 25mg/kg/day. Epidiolex is now being investigated in randomized controlled studies in DS and LGS.

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Study: High-potency marijuana linked with neural damage Studies, Brain, Potency

"We found that frequent use of high-potency cannabis significantly affects the structure of white matter fibres in the brain, whether you have psychosis or not," 
The main psychoactive ingredient in weed, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is much more concentrated in modern skunk strains as compared to traditional pot and hash -- up 14 percent as compared to 4 percent.

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More Positive Results With Cannabidiol in Epilepsy Epidiolex, Studies, Orphan Study, gw pharm

More Positive Results With Cannabidiol in Epilepsy (You will need to google this title in order to get the article to avoid creating an account)
They found a reduction of the total number of seizures by a median of 38% at 3 months and 31% at 6 months.
These patients started on a cannabidiol (CBD) dose of 2 mg/kg per day, which was increased to a maximum tolerated dose or to 25 mg/kg per day.
Of the 25 patients enrolled in the study, two discontinued treatment before 6 months. One boy stopped medication after a few months because of intolerable diarrhea, and another patient discontinued the drug because of persistent nausea/vomiting. One patient didn't report 6-month data at the time of the analysis.
More than three quarters (77%) of the 22 remaining patients experienced fewer seizures after 6 months.
However, he stressed that the study was uncontrolled, symptoms were self-reported by families, and there has been a lot of news coverage of medical marijuana for the treatment of epilepsy. "Many parents had been avidly desirous of their child going on this cannabidiol because of what they had read in the lay press, so they were primed to believe this cannabidiol might be beneficial." On the other hand, he said, it's important to keep in mind that these children have "horrible epilepsy" and most have been on more than 10 medications for seizure without success. "Any improvement to that degree in this population that is sustained is a pretty dramatic response."

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Number Using Opioids and Marijuana on the Rise medscape, opioid, Studies, NSDUH

"We found support for the synergistic effect on an individual level; people who tend to use more marijuana also tend to use more opioids," said Scott Novak, PhD, senior research scientist at RTI International, a leading research institute in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.
What's worrisome is that the positive association between cannabis and opioid use is growing stronger. The study found that over time, people were using these drugs more often; there were more opioids days and more cannabis days.

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Medical Marijuana for Pain: What the Evidence Shows pain, review, Studies

Overall, these studies seem to indicate that cannabinoids have a significant role to play in the management of chronic pain. However, there are important issues that limit the validity of this conclusion. First and most important is how the improvement in pain was evaluated. In many of the studies, only instruments to measure the level of pain, most notably the Visual Analogue Scale, were used. This is fine when one is measuring acute pain. But when it comes to chronic pain—which is what the studies were looking at—the most important measures of the impact of any treatment are improvement in functioning and other objective measures, such as reduction in use of analgesic medications.
he review found minimal evidence that cannabinoids are beneficial for the nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy or for stimulation of appetite in patients with HIV/AIDS. It also found no evidence of effectiveness for the treatment of glaucoma or mental disorders; instead, it found that cannabinoids were more likely to worsen the latter. There was some evidence that cannabinoids might be beneficial for the spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis, but even here the results did not reach statistical significance. 
Current research has fallen far short of criteria required by the FDA to approve any drug, much less for conditions not considered acutely life-threatening and for which there are already many other effective and safe treatments. The variation from state to state as to which medical conditions are approved for cannabinoid use is not because lawmakers have ignored scientific evidence. Rather, it reflects the absence of such evidence and an approval process based on politics, not science.

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Medical Marijuana for Pain: What the Evidence Shows meta-analysis, Studies, Placebo, pain

Twenty-eight studies were undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of cannabinoids for chronic pain. Of these, only 2 were found to be at low risk of bias. 

Overall, these studies seem to indicate that cannabinoids have a significant role to play in the management of chronic pain. However, there are important issues that limit the validity of this conclusion. First and most important is how the improvement in pain was evaluated. In many of the studies, only instruments to measure the level of pain, most notably the Visual Analogue Scale, were used. This is fine when one is measuring acute pain. But when it comes to chronic pain—which is what the studies were looking at—the most important measures of the impact of any treatment are improvement in functioning and other objective measures, such as reduction in use of analgesic medications. 

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Examining the relationship between marijuana use, medical marijuana dispensaries, and abusive and neglectful parenting. child abuse, dispensaries, physical abuse, Studies, parenting

Current marijuana use was positively related to frequency of child physical abuse and negatively related to physical neglect.Density of medical marijuana dispensaries and delivery services was positively related to frequency of physical abuse. As marijuana use becomes more prevalent, those who work with families, including child welfare workers must screen for how marijuana use may affect a parent's ability to provide for care for their children, particularly related to physical abuse.

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Medical marijuana laws and adolescent marijuana use in the USA from 1991 to 2014: results from annual, repeated cross-sectional surveys Lancet, usage, youth, journal, Studies

Our findings, consistent with previous evidence, suggest that passage of state medical marijuana laws does not increase adolescent use of marijuana. However, overall, adolescent use is higher in states that ever passed such a law than in other states. State-level risk factors other than medical marijuana laws could contribute to both marijuana use and the passage of medical marijuana laws, and such factors warrant investigation.

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Scentists have successfully isolated the medical benefits of cannabis from its unwanted side effects. Medical, Spain, UK, Studies

PLEASE note:  23 states in the US have legalized marijuana- using the entire plant as medicine not isolating specific cannabinoids as done in research labs.
However, Dr. McCormick was quick to warn of the dangers of individuals self-medicating, but stated he hopes the research would lead to a "safe synthetic equivalent being available in the future."

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Oregon- High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas Oregon, impact, Studies, HIDTA

The report concludes by stating that home invasions will continue to rise at grow sites, and the "exploitation of the current medical marijuana laws will continue to encourage larger indoor marijuana grow operations, impede law enforcement efforts to investigate illegal marijuana operations and contribute to the volume of marijuana trafficking through and out of the state."

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How Cannabis Causes Paranoia: Using the Intravenous Administration of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) to Identify Key Cognitive Mechanisms Leading to Paranoia Schizophrenia, paranoia, Studies, Research

The principal psychoactive constituent of cannabis is Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). THC administered intravenously is characterized by the appearance of psychopharmocological effects within 5 minutes, which continue for at least 90 minutes, providing an excellent experimental window.[12] In within-subjects tests with nonclinical volunteers, D'Souza, in particular, has shown that intravenous administration of THC causes schizophrenia-like symptoms, perceptual disturbances, anxiety, and impaired working memory (eg, Morrison et al[13] and D'Souza et al[14,15]). Similar but more pronounced results were found in patients with schizophrenia.[15]

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Lancet Study Lancet, Studies

The study found that 10th and 12thgrade use in Colorado increased significantly after medical marijuana. 
The study did not look at recreational marijuana
The study did not look at marijuana use over an extended period of time....read more on link

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'Lack of evidence' to support benefits of medical marijuana Medical, evidence, Studies

When it came to the use of cannabinoids for treatment of weight loss in HIV/AIDS patients, nausea and vomiting due to chemotherapy, sleep disorders and Tourette syndrome, the researchers found there was low-quality evidence that the compounds were effective, while there was very low-quality evidence supporting the effectiveness of cannabinoids in the treatment of anxiety.

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Study: Scant Evidence That Medical Pot Helps Many Illnesses Studies, Illness, evidence, Medical

The researchers pooled results from studies that tested marijuana against placebos, usual care or no treatment. That's the most rigorous kind of research but many studies found no conclusive evidence of any benefit. Side effects were common and included dizziness, dry mouth and sleepiness. A less extensive research review in the journal found similar results.

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Study analyzes how much pot impairs drivers impaired, driving, car crashes, TODAY, Studies

"But what we've found out is that as alcohol-impaired driving is going down, drug-impaired driving is going up." 

  • THC moves more rapidly than alcohol out of the bloodstream and into the body, making it harder to detect accurately with a blood test.
39
An Increasing Number of Young Children Are Being Exposed to Marijuana, Study Shows Children, exposure, Death, Studies

The study, conducted by researchers at Nationwide Children’s Hospital and published in the journal Clinical Pediatrics, showed a 147.5% increase in marijuana exposure among children younger than 6 years old between 2006 and 2013. That rate spiked by 610% over the same period in states where marijuana was legalized for medicinal purposes before 2000.

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Smoking marijuana may cause early puberty and stunts growth in boys youth, Studies, Research, puberty

Boys who smoke marijuana go through puberty earlier but grow more slowly than those who have never smoked the drug according to a study presented today at the European Congress of Endocrinology in Dublin, Ireland. The findings will lead to a better understanding of the dangers of drug abuse on growth and development of children.

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Medical Marijuana Pills Ineffective in Treating Dementia Symptoms, Study Finds Studies, dementia

The study involved 50 participants diagnosed with dementia and behavioral symptoms. They were divided into two groups: one was given 1.5 milligrams of medical marijuana pills, while the other received placebo. They took the pills three times a day for three weeks. The researchers also assessed their behavioral symptoms by giving them a dementia questionnaire called Neuropsychiatric Inventory prior to the study and after the three-week study period for comparison.
The test scores showed no significant difference between those who took the medical marijuana pills and the placebo group. However, the study confirmed that the pills are safe to take with minor side effects.

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Emory study shows increased adult marijuana use and binge drinking in states that legalize medical marijuana alcohol, binge drinking, Studies

Researchers from Emory’s Rollins School of Public Health found an increase in adult marijuana use and binge drinking after the implementation of medical marijuana laws (MML) in ten states that permit marijuana use for medical purposes.

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Marijuana users may have ‘false memories’ Brain, Biomedical, youth, memory, Studies, Research

Participants in a study who had used the drug daily for around three years in their teens had an abnormally shaped hippocampus by the time they were in their early 20s.
They also performed around 18 per cent worse in long-term memory tests than individuals who had never touched the drug.

44
A medical view on medical marijuana legalization evidence, Studies, legalization

The "gold standard" in medical research is "peer-reviewed, randomized, double-blind" studies, which all medicines are subjected to before the Food and Drug Administration will allow them to be prescribed by doctors to their patients, said Mikaya, who added that none of those studies have been conducted on medical marijuana. In the case of medical marijuana, those studies would show, among other things, whether medical marijuana "is effective as a medicine" and "whether its benefits outweigh its risks," Mikaya said.

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2012-2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health National Maps of Prevalence Estimates, by State Survey, Studies, youth, increase, usage 46
Monitoring the Future Studies, youth

Monitoring the Future is an ongoing study of the behaviors, attitudes, and values of American secondary school students, college students, and young adults.

47
How pot gives people the munchies Brain, Studies 48
Proportion of patients in south London with first-episode psychosis attributable to use of high potency cannabis: a case-control study Studies, Psychosis, London 49
Researchers warn of “significant link” between marijuana and mania Research, England, adolescent, mania, Studies

New research out of Britain’s Warwick University has found a “significant link” between marijuana use and mania, which can range from hyperactivity and difficulty sleeping to aggression, becoming delusional and hearing voices



 

50
Review finds ‘significant link’ between cannabis use and onset of mania symptoms mania, bi-polar, Studies, youth, mental health

Dr Marwaha said: "The observed tendency for cannabis use to precede or coincide with rather than follow mania symptoms, and the more specific association between cannabis use and new onset manic symptoms, suggests potential causal influences from cannabis use to the development of mania. It is a significant link."

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Medical Marijuana: The State of the Science Potency, Studies, lungs, cigarettes, Pregnancy

State of the Science   190 resources
Several problems are associated with marijuana use during pregnancy, because prenatal exposure influences brain development and can result in permanent cognitive impairment. [35] Cognitive deficits resulting from prenatal exposure include inattention; impulsivity; and impairment in learning, memory, and certain aspects of executive functioning. [36] In addition, prenatal exposure to cannabis has been associated with reduction of fetal growth. [37]
For many years, the myth of smoked cannabis being "healthier" or "no worse" than smoked tobacco was perpetuated by pro­marijuana groups. Both smoked cannabis and tobacco contain approximately 4000 chemicals and that these chemicals are essentially identical in both plants.In another recent review, [23] the authors concluded that "smoking of cannabis is not medically recommended due to the potential respiratory tract, dangers of noxious compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tar and carbon monoxide."
 
 

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HABITUAL MARIJUANA USE AND THE PALEO DIET: WHAT A LONG STRANGE TRIP IT’S BEEN Paleo, health, meta-analysis, Studies

PDF format

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Effects of marijuana use on impulsivity and hostility in daily life. impulsivity, PubMed, Studies 54
Medical Marijuana May Worsen PTSD Symptoms, Increase Violence. Medscape. Dec 15, 2014. Research, PTSD, Veterans, Studies 55
Portugal decriminalised drugs. Results? Use by teens doubled in a decade with nearly a fifth of 15 and 16-year-olds using drugs Portugal, Teens, youth, usage, Studies 56
Three Studies Shed New Light on the Effectiveness of Cannabis in Epilepsy Charlotte's Web, Studies 57
Long-term effects of marijuana use on the brain Long-term, Side-Effects, Brain, Research, Studies 58
What has research over the past two decades revealed about the adverse health effects of recreational cannabis use? Studies, Research, recreational 59
The terrible truth about cannabis: Expert's devastating 20-year study finally demolishes claims that smoking pot is harmless Brain, Studies 60
Young adult sequelae of adolescent cannabis use: an integrative analysis Studies, young adults, usage 61
Medical Matters: The health and social benefits of abstaining from cannabis health, youth, Studies, dropout

The large meta-analysis – a study of combined previous research – showed that people who are daily users of cannabis before the age of 17 are more than 60 per cent less likely to complete secondary school or to complete a degree compared with those who have never used the drug.

62
MGH findings on pot addiction complicate legalization debate Studies, addiction, legalization 63
Pot studies suggest regular use is bad for teen brains Teens, Brain, Studies 64
The Marijuana Report Research, national, Studies, article 65
Medical Marijuana as a new herbalism (Part 1) Gorbski, Studies, Research 66
NIDA review summarizes research on marijuana’s negative health effects Research, Studies, addiction, second hand smoke, chemicals

The reviewers consider areas in which little research has been conducted. This includes possible health consequences of secondhand marijuana smoke; the long-term impact of prenatal marijuana exposure; the therapeutic potential of the individual chemicals found in the marijuana plant; and effects of marijuana legalization policies on public health.

67
Medical marijuana laws in 50 states: investigating the relationship between state legalization of medical marijuana and marijuana use, abuse and dependence legalization, youth, Studies, Research

States that legalized medical marijuana had higher rates of marijuana use. Future research needs to examine whether the association is causal, or is due to an underlying common cause, such as community norms supportive of the legalization of medical marijuana and of marijuana use.

68
Smoking marijuana as a teenager lowers IQ for LIFE, scientists warn Studies, Brain, youth, Impairment, memory

The damaging effects remain even if the person stops smoking the drug
·         Teenagers are at particular risk because their brains are still developing
·         Smoking cannabis affects critical thinking and memory
·         Researchers warn that stronger varieties today are causing more damage 

69
Northwest High Density Trafficking Area Washington 2012 Washington, Studies 70
Potential for heart attack, stroke risk seen with marijuana use heart, Death, Studies, risks 71
Cannabis Use Is Quantitatively Associated with Nucleus Accumbens and Amygdala Abnormalities in Young Adult Recreational Users Studies, Medical, Brain, youth 72
Casual marijuana use linked with brain abnormalities, study finds Research, Brain, young adults, Studies

For the first time, researchers at Northwestern University have analyzed the relationship between casual use of marijuana and brain changes – and found that young adults who used cannabis just once or twice a week showed significant abnormalities in two important brain structures.

73
Deal leads state to path forward on cannabis oil treatment Georgia, Charlotte's Web, Studies

Deal has consulted with the federal Food and Drug Administration on how the state can begin legal clinical trials with cannabis oil products at Georgia Regents University Augusta.

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Marijuana for Epilepsy: Weighing the Evidence Charlotte's Web, Notes, Studies

Marijuana for Epilepsy: Weighing the Evidence, Epilepsy Notes, Andrew N. Wilner, MD, March 25, 2014

Considering Marijuana

In 2011 (more than 2.5 years ago) in "Marijuana: A Viable Epilepsy Therapy?" I reviewed the possibility of marijuana (Cannabis sativa) for the treatment of epilepsy. That article concluded, "More research is needed before patients should consider marijuana for seizure relief, particularly because this represents criminal activity under US federal law and may be accompanied by adverse medical (and legal) events."

What Hasn't Changed Since 2011?

What hasn't changed is the desperation of people with uncontrolled seizures and their families. Heather Jackson, the mother of Zaki, one of the children who responded to Charlotte's web, stated in a Huffington Post video interview, "If you wanted to take my money, I would give it to you. I wanted to save my boy."[13] Such vulnerable families need to be protected from scams, false promises, and dangerous drugs.

Conclusions

Despite the recent journalistic hype, my 2011 conclusions about "medical marijuana" have not changed. Marijuana is still a schedule I drug. It is not FDA-approved for the treatment of epilepsy or any other neurologic condition. Its medical (and recreational) use is still illegal under federal law. There are no controlled trials demonstrating that marijuana is "safe" or "effective" for the treatment of epilepsy. On the other hand, there is evidence that marijuana may be harmful, particularly in the developing brain after regular use. Synthetic cannabinoids appear even more toxic.

However, for many people with epilepsy, seizures cannot be controlled with FDA-approved medications. Other treatment options, such as the vagus nerve stimulator, responsive neurostimulation, or the ketogenic diet, may not work or may not be appropriate choices. For patients who have exhausted conventional therapies, medical marijuana, for which there is anecdotal evidence of seizure control, could be considered as an unproven, "compassionate use" alternative. Any such use of marijuana should be carefully monitored by a physician. A better alternative for children with intractable epilepsy would be enrollment in the new Epidiolex clinical trial.

75
Smoking cannabis CAN kill you: German researchers identify two men who died purely as a result of using the drug overdose, Studies, Death

They discovered that the deaths of two of the patients could not be put down to anything other than marijuana use.

Both of these people were men who had died after their hearts started beating either too fast or too slowly.

The researchers believe that this change in heart rhythm – called arrhythmia - was caused by cannabis.

The reason they came to this conclusion was that both had smoked the drug within a few hours of their death and neither had any history of heart problems.

76
Study: Fatal Car Crashes Involving Marijuana Have Tripled car crashes, Studies, Washington, Fatalities 77
Trends in Alcohol and Other Drugs Detected in Fatally Injured Drivers in the United States, 1999–2010 Studies, car crashes 2, national, Epidemiology 78
Parental THC Exposure Leads to Compulsive Heroin-Seeking and Altered Striatal Synaptic Plasticity in the Subsequent Generation. Studies, THC, Pregnancy, Consequences

Recent attention has been focused on the long-term impact of cannabis exposure, for which experimental animal studies have validated causal relationships between neurobiological and behavioral alterations during the individual's lifetime.

79
Cannabis Use during Adolescent Development: Susceptibility to Psychiatric Illness adolescent, Psychiatric, addiction, Schizophrenia, opioid, Studies 80
Marijuana and Drugged Driving car crashes 2, impaired, IBH, Research, Studies, car crashes

Institute for Behavioral and Health- 
The threat to public safety on the roadways posed by marijuana-impaired driving has been pushed to the top of nation’s agenda by the legalization of marijuana in Colorado and Washington as well as by the legalization of “medical” marijuana in 18 states and the District of Columbia. Marijuana has significant impairing psychological and physiological effects on driving. 

81
Cannabis Use in Teens Linked to Irreparable Drop in IQ Studies, youth, Brain

"Our results suggest that adolescents are particularly vulnerable to develop cognitive impairment from cannabis and that the drug, far from being harmless, as many teens and even adults are coming to believe, can have severe neurotoxic effects on the adolescent brain,"..

82
Psychomotor Function in Chronic Daily Cannabis Smokers during Sustained Abstinence Studies, Research, chronic

Conclusions/Significance: Sustained cannabis abstinence moderately improved critical tracking and divided attention performance in chronic, daily cannabis smokers, but impairment was still observable compared to controls after 3 weeks of 

abstinence. Between group differences, however, need to be interpreted with caution as chronic smokers and controls were not matched for education, social economic status, life style and race.

83
Acute cannabis consumption and motor vehicle collision risk: systematic review of observational studies and meta-analysis Studies, Research, car crashes, meta-analysis, Fatalities

Acute cannabis consumption is associated with an increased risk of a motor vehicle crash, especially for fatal collisions. This information could be used as the basis for campaigns against drug impaired driving, developing regional or national policies to control acute drug use while driving, and raising public awareness.

84
“Pot Is More Dangerous than LSD or Heroine” - Liberal UK Newspaper Apologizes for Efforts to Legalize Danger, Psychosis, Studies 85
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